Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections.
Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.
Features of Antifungal Drugs For Poultry
Fungal/mycotic infections are common in all kinds of poultry birds but are less prevalent as compared to bacterial and viral infections. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms, comprising of both yeasts and molds. Fungal diseases of poultry include Aspergillosis, Candidiasis, Dactylariosis, Cryptococcosis, Favus, Rhodotorulosis, Torulopsis, Mucormycoses, Histoplasmosis and Cryptococcosis. Out of these, the first two (Aspergillosis and Candidiasis) are having much importance and impact and the last two (Histoplasmosis and Cryptococcosis) have some zoonotic significance. Fungi produce disease in two ways viz. producing pathogenic signs and lesions of disease by invading, harming and destroying body tissues of the host; and by producing some toxins known as mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, ergot, fusarium toxins etc.) in food grains and feed during crop production, harvesting and storage steps, the intake, consumption and subsequent intoxication of which produce disease, immunosuppressive condition and hampers production potential
Uses/benefits of Antifungal Drugs For Poultry
Fluconazole (Diflucan) is an antifungal drug used for treating certain fungal infections, including Cryptococcosis, Aspergillous, Candidiasis (sour crop), Blastomycosis and Histoplasmosis in poultry. Fluconazole generally has fewer side effects than other antifungal drugs, however it is also less effective than other drugs, such as intraconazole. It is highly water soluble and is readily absorbed from the GI tract regardless of acidity or food intake.
- ANTIBACTERIAL/ANTIFUNGAL is an all-natural treatment for Candida, fungus, yeast and bacterial infections.
- It consists of 100% Pau D’Arco bark powder, which is widely known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties.
Prices of Antifungal Drugs For Poultry
$23.95 – $94.99