Soybean is one of the most important crops in the world. It is a major source of protein for humans, as well as livestock and poultry. In addition, soybean oil is used in cooking and frying. Soybeans are also used to make soy flour, which is used in a wide variety of food products. Soybeans are grown on over 80 million acres of land in the United States each year (USDA).
The use of fertilizers has increased dramatically over time as farmers have sought to increase yields per acre and improve crop quality (USDA). Organic fertilizers have been used since ancient times but were not widely available until recently. Today they are considered an alternative to synthetic fertilizers because they are made from natural sources rather than chemicals (Stamets).
Organic fertilizers include manure, animal wastes such as blood meal and fish emulsion, composted plant materials such as seaweed extract or mushroom compost, and green manures like buckwheat or rye grass plowed under before it flowers . Mineral fertilizers include rock phosphate, potassium chloride and ammonium sulfate.
In this study, the Effect Of Organic And Mineral Fertilizer on Soybean yield was determined by applying the following soil amendments in the non-acid soil: Vermicomost + 75% RFD, poultry litter + 75% RFD, and commercial biofertilizers on the non-acid land. The result indicated that the application of these fertilizers enhanced growth and yield-contributing character of soybean.
Vermicomost + 75% RFD and poultry litter + 75% RFD showed better performance on growth and yield contributing characters of soybean
In a field experiment, both poultry litter and vermicomost produced higher yields than soybean with a comparable plant nutrition. Both nutrient combinations had a positive effect on growth and yield contributing characters, including protein content and stomatal density. The authors of this study are Dharini, K., Cynthia, J. Bernadette, Kamalambikai, B., and Sudar Celestina, J. P. Arul.
In this study, poultry litter and vermicomost with 75% RFD and 75 percent RFD both demonstrated better performance on growth and yield contributing characters in soybean. The combined application of these two fertilizers was more efficient in increasing soybean yield than inorganic fertilizer. Poultry litter and vermicomost are considered to be environment-friendly and promising for soybean cultivation.
Organic manures like poultry litter and vermicomost met the micronutrient requirements of soybean and were superior to the two common chemical fertilizers, urea and phosphorus. Both symbiotic Rhizobium stains fixed atmospheric nitrogen in nodules and also showed antagonistic effects on soil borne pathogens.
The results of this study demonstrated that vermicomost and poultry litter + 75% RFD combined with poultry litter significantly improved the growth and yield of soybean when compared to urea as a control. The two fertilizers are a promising solution for reducing soil pollution in Mediterranean soil. However, further studies are needed to determine how these nutrient formulations may be used in soybean cultivation.
Furthermore, dairy-manure and poultry litter-derived biochar improve soil pH and increase exchangeable cations, and have positive impacts on germination and plant growth in arid and semi-arid climates. As a result, these bioresources wastes may become an integral part of your farming practices.
Pork litter and poultry litter-based soil amendments both had a significant effect on the presence of Clostridium spp. In particular, eight percent of Clostridium spp. isolated from SMC treated soil carried the ermB gene. Such environmental recalcitrant clostridium will persist for years after SMC application.
Santap NM application in non-acid land
Using Santap NM to grow soybeans is an effective way to improve seed yield and yields, as well as reduce the need for inorganic fertilizer. A single 1.5-ton application can replace 150 kg of Phonska. In one study, farmers who used 1.5-ton Santap NM2 were able to replace Phonska with a yield of 2.2 to 2.56 t/ha.
To study the effects of Santap NM on non-acid soil, we studied two different plots: a main plot and a sub plot. The main plot was planted with two plants per hole, while the sub plot contained a mixture of four types of organic fertilizer. The sub plots were grown using 2.5 t of manure/ha or a mixture of five t manure and two t of Santap NM-2/ha. The results showed that Santap NM application increased the N and K content of leaves. However, Santap NM2 did not have an impact on P or K content.
Commercial biofertilizer application in non-acid land
A significant impact of commercial bio-fertilizer application on non-acid land is its ability to improve soil properties. This process accelerates humification of fresh and bio-wastes in soils. Compared with a control plot, bio-fertilizers increased the humus content by more than 75%. However, the researchers are unsure how this change occurs.
In North America, the biofertilizer market is expected to dominate in the coming years, owing to increasing demand for organic products, high adoption of advanced irrigation systems, and stringent regulations. However, the market for commercial bio-fertilizer application in non-acid land is expected to remain highly fragmented, with most producers being local or international. This growth will continue to be hampered by the increasing production of food crops in South America, Europe, and Asia, which have reduced arable land.
Despite the positive effects of commercial bio-fertilizer application in non-aqueous land, the results are mixed. In the Sonora experiment, biofertilizers did not increase corn yields. In contrast, a study in Tlaxcala concluded that a 50% rate was sufficient to cover plant nutrition requirements in non-acid soils under water-limiting rainfed conditions.
HA was also associated with higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. This may be due to increased nutrient availability and the activity of enzymes including cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4coumaryl-CoA (4CL). This bio-fertilizer application has a positive impact on the formation of phenolic compounds, which is important for the defense mechanism of competing plants in intercropping systems.
The bio-fertilizers market is growing at a significant rate in developed countries. The ban on chemical fertilizers has not affected the growth of the bio-fertilizer market. However, the adoption of bio-fertilizers is limited due to a lack of awareness among farmers. Therefore, farmers and gardeners are encouraged to switch to bio-fertilizers as a natural alternative to chemical fertilizers.
The use of bio-fertilizers in agricultural soils is highly beneficial in terms of improving soil fertility and maintaining organic matter. While they have been around for several decades, relatively little research has been done to determine their effectiveness on crop production. Furthermore, bio-fertilizers can enhance soil biodiversity, boost the growth of beneficial micro-organisms, and improve the quality of the soil.
In the study, samples of soil C fractions were collected after harvest and before and after application of max. max was applied according to the producer’s recommendations and half of the study area was treated with bio-fertilizers. The other half received a controlled fertilizer. The results showed no significant differences between treatments. Soil C fractions were not transformed and were similar between treatment groups.
The results showed humic acid and bio-fertilizer application significantly improved the oil yields of fennel and fenugreek. Both species had improved fixed and essential oil contents. In addition, HA and BFS had significant positive effects on the phenolic content of both species. The researchers concluded that commercial bio-fertilizer application in non-acid land can enhance yields and phenolic content in crops.