Vaccination, initially with inactivated virus, was considered a possibility for the control of ND at the time of the apparent emergence of the virus. However, after the 1933 outbreak in England, an attenuated live vaccine was produced which was called strain H. Later, the naturally occurring USA isolates of low virulence, Hitchner B1 (HB1) and La Sota, became the most used veterinary vaccines throughout the world. Fifty years or more have passed since vaccine was first used to protect village poultry against ND. (Placcidi and Sentucci, 1952).
During this time, a wide variety of types of vaccine have been developed. Many, but not all, have been tested on village poultry. It is the purpose of this chapter to present an overview of the different kinds of vaccine available. It is not the intention to recommend a particular vaccine, but rather to try and outline the relative advantages and limitations of each, with particular reference to its use in the village situation and giving examples of how the different vaccines are employed.
The principle of vaccination against a viral disease is well-known: to elicit an immunological response against the virus in a way that does not cause the disease. The simplest way to do this is to take the virus, kill it, and then inject it into the bird. This is an inactivated vaccine. Another approach is to select a naturally occurring virus that is not virulent enough to cause serious disease, and infect the birds with this virus. This is a live vaccine.
This latter approach can be taken further by taking a non virulent natural virus and selecting a clone from the virus population with desirable properties, such as lack of vaccinal reactions, or heat tolerance. This is a cloned live vaccine. Finally, it is possible to genetically engineer a vaccine by, for example, taking part of the genetic material of the virus that codes for a surface antigen, and inserting this into another, different, virus to produce a recombinant vaccine.
Live attenuated vaccines
Again, due to flock size, the most widely used vaccines are live attenuated virus vaccines which can be administered to birds by techniques which are practical within the limitations of the production environment. This is usually by means of the drinking water or by spray application, though some live vaccines require individual application by eye drop or administration by injection.
Inactivated vaccines are usually employed in breeding or laying stock and require individual administration by injection. All contain some type of adjuvant in order to optimize the immune response to the antigen. Commonly used adjuvants include mineral oils and aluminium hydroxide.
Features of Eye Drop Vaccination In Poultry
There are seven methods of vaccination which are used and are mentioned over here in detail. The reconstitution of vaccine is of prime importance. Users must apply all the steps of the reconstitution while using the live freeze dried vaccines.
Intraocular (Eye Drop) or Nasal Instillation method
This method of administration by Eye drop/ Nasal instillation should be preferably used for small dose packs as it is necessary to consume reconstituted vaccine immediately. If this method is to be used for higher dose packs it is advisable to use more vaccinators so as to utilise reconstituted vaccine immediately. Hold the chick with one eye turned up. Take the vaccine product in sterile prescribed vaccine-dropper and instill one drop in eye or nostril. Ensure that the vaccine drop is completely absorbed in the nostril or in the eye. In Nasal Instillation method the vaccine drop is inhaled by the chick on momentary pressing of the beak. Intraocular method of vaccination gives better immune response. Use prescribed droppers as provided by Ventri.
Prices of Eye Drop Vaccination In Poultry
$19.23 – $80.00