Broiler finishers are a type of poultry that are raised for their meat. Broilers are usually slaughtered at around 45 days of age depending on their breed and weight. Broilers are typically harvested at around 6 weeks of age after they reach a live weight of 3 pounds or more. The main types of broiler meats include chicken, Cornish game hen, Cornish cross, and broilers.
The first thing we need to look at is the nutrient requirements for broiler finishers. This can be found in the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements Of Poultry (2015). The NRC Nutrient Requirements Of Poultry (2015) states that the minimum requirement for protein is 22% while fat should be 2%. Fiber should be 10% while available carbohydrates should be 5% plus starch tolerance. Calcium content should be 2% while sodium content should be 0.7%. The potassium content should be 1%. Vitamin A content should be 32 g/kg while Vitamin D content should be 20 g/kg.
The feed formulation is a preparation of ingredients that are needed to make feeds. The ingredients, which are combined to form materials for poultry and livestock feed production, can be classified into three categories: grains and plant products; animal by-products; and minerals.
Ingredients are raw materials or feedstuff. They are the “basic” units on which animal diets are built and they have no nutrient value of their own but when combined, supply all the nutrients required by livestock to grow, develop and reproduce.
Ingredients may be divided into three categories:
- Proteinaceous ingredients (e.g., meat meal, fish meal)
- Non-proteinaceous ingredients (e.g., corn gluten meal)
- Supplements (e.g., vitamins and minerals).
Corn is a cereal grain that is the most widely grown in the world. It is a rich source of starch and can be used as feed for livestock and poultry. Corn is also used to make ethanol, which can be used as an alternative fuel source to gasoline or diesel.
Maize Bran (Polish)
One of the byproducts of the milling process is Polish bran, which is a layer of fiber that covers the endosperm. The bran contains nutrients and antioxidants that are necessary for plant growth. It’s also rich in essential amino acids and trace minerals, making it an excellent source of nutrition.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that more than 70 percent of the world’s corn crop is used for animal feed. In 2011, an estimated 1.5 billion tons of corn were produced globally. The fourth category of ingredients is sometimes used: Protein supplements (e.g., soybean meal, cottonseed meal). The basic building block of all diets is protein and it should be the first ingredient listed on the bagThe bran layer is removed during milling to produce white flour, which is more commonly used in Western countries. However, the bran is still a valuable source of nutrition and can be added back into breads and other baked goods…
Soya bean is a legume and is a good source of protein, fat and fibre. It is rich in vitamins and minerals like niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and pantothenic acid. Soya bean meal contains 50-60% protein while the crude fiber content ranges from 12-16%.
It is used as an ingredient in many food products, and is also a source of protein for vegetarians. Soya bean meal can also be used as animal feed because it contains all the essential amino acids that are needed by humans and animals.
Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction. Soybean meal is a high-protein animal feed that is used in the production of poultry, swine, and fish feeds.
Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction. Soybean meal is a high protein animal feed that is used in the production of poultry, swine, and fish feeds. The primary use for soybean meal is as an ingredient in livestock feeds.
Wheat offal (bran)
Wheat offal (bran) is the outer covering of wheat grains. It contains a high level of fiber and protein, as well as vitamins and minerals.
Wheat bran is used as an additive to other feeds to improve their digestibility and palatability, or simply to boost the energy content of the ration by adding a source of easily digested carbohydrates.
Coconut Meal (Kopra meal)
Coconut meal is a by-product of coconut processing. It is produced by grinding or shredding dried, mature coconuts and separating the kernel and fiber. Coconut meal is high in protein and energy and has a relatively low fiber content (3.5%) compared to soybean meal (16%). The protein content of coconut is 24%, which makes it suitable for inclusion at levels up to 20% in broiler diets without negatively affecting performance or carcass traits.
The bran can also be fed as a source of fiber and protein. The outer layer of cereal grain is rich in protein and fat, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. It contains more than 50% oil (called the aleurone layer) which is easily digestible by ruminants. The fatty acid profile of coconut meal is very similar to that of soybean meal, with high amounts of palmitic acid and low amounts of linoleic acid. The digestibility of coconut meal is slightly lower compared to soybean meal due to the presence of fiber.
Sorghum, or “Sorgho” in French, is a cereal grain that originated in Africa but has since spread across Asia and North America. It is also known as “Milo” and “Milo maize”.
Sorghum is a tropical and subtropical grass used as a staple food in many countries including Ethiopia, Vietnam, Brazil, and Mexico. Sorghum syrup (a sweetener) can be made from the by-product of crushing sorghum grain into flour called “milo”. Milo maize is used to make beer, whiskey, and other alcoholic beverages that are popular throughout Europe and Asia
. Sorghum is commonly used as a food source for humans and animals. It can be boiled, roasted or fried and eaten on its own or with other foods. It is also popular in confectionery such as chocolate bars, fudge, and syrup.
The stalks can be used as building material and the leaves are often used in making paper or textiles. The roots of the plant are also edible but they must be cooked first. Sorghum is grown in many tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, including Australia, South Africa, and India.
Rice bran is the outer layer of rice. Rice bran contains high-quality protein, fat, fiber and minerals. It has a nutritional value similar to that of wheat middlings or soybean meal. The maximum digestibility of rice bran is around 80%.
Rice bran can be used for broiler finisher feed formulation as it has shown to improve both performance and carcass characteristics.
Some studies have also shown that feeding wheat middlings with high levels of rice bran may cause adverse effects on performance due to its low palatability as well as intestinal problems including poor intestinal motility, decreased fecal output, and reduced growth rate
Limestone/Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
Calcium carbonate is a mineral found in rocks and soils. It is used in many industries, such as the paper and cement industries. It is also used in the production of steel. Calcium carbonate is a source of calcium for animals.
Calcium carbonate is used as a dietary supplement in the form of calcium carbonate. It is also used as an antacid to treat indigestion and heartburn. Calcium carbonate may be used to treat or prevent osteoporosis, rickets, and kidney stones.
Iodized salt/NaCl/Common salt.
NaCl, or common salt, is a chemical compound of sodium and chlorine. It is the salt most commonly used to season food. Iodized salt is another kind of NaCl that has iodine added to it in order to prevent and treat low blood pressure.
Ingredients is the raw materials or feedstuffs. They are the ‘basic’ units on which animal diets are built, they have no nutrient value of their own but when combined, supply all the nutrients required by livestock to grow, develop and reproduce.
Ingredients are the raw materials or feed stuffs. They are the ‘basic’ units on which animal diets are built, they have no nutrient value of their own but when combined, supply all the nutrients required by livestock to grow, develop and reproduce.
The composition of ingredients should be such that they will provide all the nutrients required by livestock in adequate quantities and balance to support efficient growth rates, reproduction performance, and maintenance.
The ingredients must be stored properly to prevent deterioration and spoilage. Storage conditions should be cool, dry, and well-ventilated to avoid moisture buildup in bags, bins, or silos which may cause mold growth. If the storage area is not well-ventilated then it should be cleaned often with a sprayer or vacuum cleaner so as to remove accumulated dust particles.