Feed formulation is the process of creating a complete feed for animals. This can be done in several ways, depending on the type of animal being fed, its age and health status, and what it will be fed on. There are two major types of feed: concentrates and roughages (also known as forages). Concentrates are those that contain large amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals which are needed by animals in considerable quantities to support growth or lactation. Roughages include whole grains such as corn or wheat bran as well as hay from grasses. The most common way to formulate a feed is by weighing out the ingredients carefully into separate bins according to a recipe created by an animal nutritionist.

Feed formulation is a key activity in the poultry industry. It is important because it can help to reduce costs, improve productivity, and increase egg quality. Feed formulation also helps prevent malnutrition and disease by ensuring that birds receive the correct nutrients at different stages of development. This article will provide an overview of feed formulation for poultry, including its purpose and the factors that need to be considered when formulating feeds for birds of different ages (e.g., broilers or laying hens).

Feed formulation is a very important part of poultry farming. The feed formulation is the basis of poultry nutrition. If you want to make your poultry healthy and strong, you should have a good feed formulation. There are many things that you should consider while making a good feed formulation for your poultry.

It is important that you check all the ingredients before using them in your feed formulation. The first thing that you should look at is the protein content of the ingredients. It should be more than 16%. The next thing that you should look at is the fat content of the ingredients. It should be less than 5%. Carbohydrates should be 30% or more and fiber content should be less than 10%. Poultry needs minerals in its diet as well as vitamins to stay healthy and strong. You can add minerals like zinc, calcium, magnesium, and so on in your feed formulation according to the requirements of your veterinarian or poultry expert.

Methods of Feed Formulation

You will need to feed your birds on a regular basis in order for them to grow and develop properly. To ensure that they are getting the nutrients they need, it is necessary to formulate their feed. This step is where you select the ingredients that make up their diet and combine them into a complete ration (complete feeding system). Formulating feed involves three basic steps: selecting ingredients, formulating rations, and determining how much of each ingredient should be included in each ration.

  • Selecting Ingredients, Before you can develop rations, you must first decide what type of poultry you want to raise (broilers, layers, or breeders) as well as what type of housing systems will be used for each stage of growth (a broiler house has lower temperatures than layer houses). These decisions will determine which ingredients should be used in your formulation process because certain nutrients are needed more by one species than another. For example if broiler chickens are being raised using forced air heating systems but not air conditioning then corn should not be included in their diet because it would cause excessive heat stress at higher temperatures.

How much feed is required?

The quantity of feed required to produce a certain amount of meat or eggs varies depending on the type and age of the bird. For broilers, 1 kg of feed is required for every 2.2 kg of body weight; for layers (hens raised for eggs), 1 kg of feed is required for every 2.5 kg of body weight.

The ingredients are then mixed together with a mixer and packaged into bags or bins for delivery. The process of formulating feeds is complex, since it involves balancing the nutrient needs of an animal with its ability to digest and absorb those nutrients.

Formulation of Broiler Feed

The ingredients used in the formulation of broiler feed are protein source, carbohydrate source, fat source and minerals and vitamins. The selected ingredient must be thoroughly mixed together to make a uniform mixture which is suitable for feeding the birds at different stages of their growth.

The following factors have been taken into consideration while formulating broiler feed:

  • The nutrient requirements for growth & development of broilers are different from those needed for egg production or laying hens. Therefore separate feeds are formulated for these poultry categories.
  • Although there are certain common characteristics between all types of poultry feeds, each type has its own special nutritional requirements that need to be taken into consideration when formulating them.

These differences result from: * different levels of feed intake; * differing metabolic rates; * differences in body composition; * differently sized animals (they may differ by as much as 30 percent); * genetics (heredity) can also play an important role

The amount of feed required will also depend on the bird’s efficiency, which can be expressed as a percentage. For example, broilers have an average feed conversion ratio (FCR) of around 1.6; this means that they convert 16% of their body weight into meat, while 84% is lost in waste products such as feathers and droppings.

Formulation of Layer Feed

The first thing to understand about layer feed is the importance of protein and energy in the diet. Feeding guidelines for layers are based on requirements for these two nutrients, but there are many other factors that affect the amount of feed needed.

The formula below shows how much feed you need per bird in pounds per day:

Wt (lbs) x (1 + 0.02) = lbs/day

Formulating your own layer feed costs a lot less than buying it ready-made at the store; however, it can be time consuming if you have several hundred hens to care for.

In the nutritional requirements of poultry, The formula above is only a guideline. It’s important to know your flock and their individual needs before you start feeding them. Taking the time to weigh each bird regularly will help you determine if they are gaining or losing weight, which will affect how much feed you need to provide.


Feeding a layer ration for laying hens is slightly different from feeding a broiler diet. The following nutrients are important in layers feeds:

  • Protein content: Proteins are important for growth and body composition of the hen. A minimum crude protein level of 16% to 18% is required to meet requirements of laying hens.
  • Crude fat: The requirement of this nutrient is similar to that for growing broilers. About 8% to 10% can be included in the diet, which increases the egg weight by about 0.5 g per day when fed at 3% (DM basis). However, if too much fat is given, it may make eggs less firm or cause yellow yolk pigmentation due to increased oleic acid intake (more than 8%).
  • Crude fibre: Fibre is needed for proper digestion and helps lower intestinal pH; it also binds minerals such as calcium and phosphorus so they cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream but rather pass through with feces; finally, fibre helps stimulate a faster rate of passage through the digestive tract which results in reduced ammonia emission from manure.

In Conclusion

If you’re looking for a way to improve your feed formulation process, it helps to have a better understanding of how these nutrients function. For example, amino acids like tryptophan and phenylalanine are essential to poultry growth but not available in the same amounts in cornmeal or wheat middlings. Therefore, they must be added back into a feed through supplementation.

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