Mango tree is a tropical and subtropical fruit-bearing tree belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species. The genus is in the cashew and sumac family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to South, Southeast and East Asia, from India east to Papua New Guinea, Australia and the Philippines, Melanesia and Polynesia (Vanuatu), as well as northern Australia. It has been introduced to other parts of the world such as Brazil, West Indies, Central America, Mexico and Florida in the United States.
Mangoes are the most popular fruit in India and considered to be king of fruits. Mango trees grow above 50 feet tall with opposite leaves long wide with a short stalk (petiole). In 2016, India was the largest producer of mangoes with over 50% of worldwide production. Other major producers include China, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Brazil.
Mangoes are not only delicious, but also contain vitamin A&C. The tree is hardy in nature, can be grown in any soil and requires low maintenance costs. Its fruits are utilised at all stages of development, both ripe and unripe, as they are used to make chutneys, pickles and juices. The kernel also contains 8-10 percent good quality fat which can be used for soap making as well as a substitute for cocoa butter in confectionery products.
How to Plant a Mango Tree
The first step to planting a mango tree is deciding where you want to plant it. Mango trees are typically found in tropical climates, so if you live in a temperate or cooler climate, you may want to look for another type of fruit tree. They’re fairly hardy and long-lived, so you could grow one indoors and transplant it outside when the weather warms up.
Selection of Mango variety to plant
Mango is a tropical fruit that is popular in most countries of the world. It is grown in warm climates and requires about seven to nine months to ripen on the tree. There are hundreds of varieties of mangoes, some with yellow or orange flesh, others with red or purple flesh, and still others with green skin and white flesh.
Mangoes are generally eaten fresh as a dessert fruit or used in preparing preserves and chutneys. Some varieties are also used for making juice and nectar, while others are dried for use as snacks and in making pickles.
The taste of mangoes varies according to their variety and how ripe they are when picked. Some people prefer sweet mangoes while others prefer slightly sour ones. Mangoes that have been recently picked should be firm with smooth skin but they will soften as they ripen on the tree or after being stored at room temperature for several days.
The selection of a mango variety depends upon personal preference and availability in different regions. It is important to consider factors like taste, texture, color, size and other nutritional values before deciding which variety would best suit your needs.
The best mango varieties to plant include:
- Ataulfo mangoes
- Keitt mangoes
- Tommy Atkins mangoes
- Alphonso mangoes
- Kesar mangoes
- Dasheri mangoes
- Chausa mangoes
- Bombay Green mangoes
- Langra mangoes
- Amrapali mangoes
- Neelam mangoes
The Climatic Requirement Of Mango Tree
Mango is a tropical fruit that can be grown in the sub-tropical climate from sea level to 1400 m altitude. The places with good rainfall and dry summer are ideal for mango cultivation.
The climatic requirement of mango is as follows:
Rainfall: Mango trees need regular water supply throughout the year, but they should not be overwatered. They should be watered every alternate day during winter months, and once in 2 or 3 days during summer.
Temperature: Mango trees grow well at temperatures ranging between 15 and 30 degree Celsius, with an optimum temperature of 25 degree Celsius. It can tolerate high temperatures up to 40 degree Celsius, but it cannot stand low temperatures below 10 degree Celsius.
When planting a mango tree, you have to make sure that the soil is loose and well-draining. Loamy soil or sandy loam will work best for your tree.
You can test your soil’s acidity before planting by taking a sample of the soil and mixing it with water. If it turns blue, your soil has a high pH; if it turns red, it has a low pH; and if it remains white, it is neutral. Mango plants prefer a pH between 5.5 and 7; however, they can tolerate more acidic conditions than most other fruit trees.
Plough the land couple of times until the fine-tilth stages is achieved followed by harrowing to acheive a gentle slope for good drainage. Apply a good dressing of organic matter (e.g., compost, cattle manure) approximately 10 days before planting and incorporate it into the soil to a depth of about 8-12 inches.
Spacing for mango tree
Mango trees are one of the most beautiful, fragrant, and delicious additions to any home or garden. They’re also great for small spaces because they can be grown in containers.
But if you want to plant a mango tree, you’ll need to know how far apart to put them. That’s because the spacing of your trees depends on where you live—the climate and soil conditions will affect their growth rate and size.
In dryer areas, like deserts or arid regions, you’ll want to space your mango trees about 10 meters (33 feet) apart from each other. In wetter areas like tropical rainforests or low-lying valleys, the mango trees should be spaced 12 meters (39 feet) apart from each other. Dwarf hybrids mango trees can be planted at closer spacing of 5 meters (16 feet).
Planting of Mango Tree
Planting a mango tree from seed is an easy process that can be done by anyone. The first step is to ensure your soil is well-drained and rich in organic matter. To plant, dig a hole that is half an inch (1 cm) deep, place the seed in the hole, and backfill with the dug up native soil or with seed starter mix.
The next step is to water the seeds lightly and keep them moist until they germinate. Once they have germinated, keep them watered regularly until they are established in their new location.
When to Plant Mango tree
The best time to plant a mango tree is in the spring when the weather is still mild. This time is the best time for the tree’s growth and development.
You can plant your mango tree in the fall, but it may not have time to establish itself before winter arrives. If you choose this option, make sure that you plant it in a sheltered location and water regularly until spring arrives.
Mango Tree Care & Management
Mango tree growth takes place in a series of short cycles throughout the year, depending on the cultivar, climate, and management practices. This pattern is essential for effective cultural management, allowing the expression of genetic material. Flowering is a complicated phenomenon, and the timing of flowering may be extended earlier or delayed depending on the soil, previous crop productivity, and climate conditions.
Fertilize mango trees from flowering stage to fruit formation
To fertilize a mango tree in the ground, first determine what stage of the growth the tree is in. The tree needs high levels of nitrogen, which are supplied by fertilizers such as chicken manure or pelleted chicken manure. During the winter months, mango trees’ growth slows down. In order to avoid yellow leaves, fertilize the tree with high-nitrogen products in spring and fall. Then, apply high-potassium fertilizer every two to three months during the growing season.
Fertilize mango trees from flowering to fruit formation with organic granules. These granules create a rich nutrient environment, resulting in lush foliage and plentiful fruit. These fertilizers do not need water to activate, making them ideal for drought-tolerant conditions. Use one cup of organic granules every three months for mature mango trees. New mango trees may need up to two cups per planting hole, and a half cup should be enough for a mature tree.
Use a foliar spray to provide the flowering stage with a balanced amount of nitrogen and potassium. The foliar spray helps the flowers absorb the fertilizer. The first application is made while the flower panicles are between three to 15 cm long, and the second one is made when 50 to 100% of the panicles are in anthesis. You can apply foliar sprays once or twice a month, depending on your budget.
Apply foliar micronutrients in the drip/irrigated area of mango trees to prevent deficiency. Do not apply fertilizers close to the roots of mango trees as they cannot absorb nutrients. However, preplant soil applications of 50 g solubor/tree will prevent boron deficiency. Inoculants with higher levels of nitrogen will cause scorching. Moreover, fertilizing young mango trees is risky because they can suffer from over-fertilization. Fish emulsion is a natural source of boron for mangoes. Also, sandy soils need more fertilizer than other types of soils.
Organic blood meal is an organic fertilizer that contains the right ratio of N-P-K and phosphorus to improve the pH level of the soil. Organic blood meal will help your mango tree grow faster and more prolifically. It’s easy to apply and can be purchased online. Simply dilute the blood meal with water before applying it to the soil. And don’t forget to apply a layer of fertilizer on the ground to the tree’s root zone.
Inoculate the soil underneath the tree canopy
After planting the mango tree, inoculate the soil beneath the canopy with beneficial bacteria and fungi. Use a liquid product containing colony forming units and propagules from ectomycorrhizae. Add a few perennial woody shrubs near the dripline to provide living roots. You can plant Little John callistemon and dwarf Walters viburnum to create a food web in the soil.
Watering a mango tree
If you’re wondering how to water a mango tree in the ground, the first step is to figure out the solar number of your house. If you live in a low-solar area, the plant will receive less sunlight than a normal tree. It will also experience difficulties growing if its roots are crowded below the soil. Fortunately, there are some simple things you can do to help it grow.
During the warm months of the year, mango trees require regular watering. The soil moisture should remain consistent throughout the year. For best results, water a mango tree at least once a week. It’s important to check the roots for dryness and watch for drooping leaves. A morning watering is ideal as the roots of a mango tree do not need too much water in the morning.
After planting a mango tree, it’s important to ensure that it gets plenty of water. A mango tree grows well in soil that has good drainage. A small seedling should be planted at about a half-inch depth in the ground, as a seedling is much more delicate. A larger seedling may need support, or it may need to be staked to ensure good growth. It is important to regularly water the tree for the first few weeks after planting to ensure it stays healthy.
Pruning a mango tree
There are several different reasons to prune your mango tree, including height, scaffold, and open frame. Typically, your tree only needs one or two thinning cuts per year. Pruning can also help the tree develop healthy new shoots. With proper pruning, your tree will produce delicious mangoes for many years to come. Plus, you’ll be able to enjoy its sweet, juicy fruit in ice-creams, smoothies, and more.
Mango trees need only minimal pruning, so do not worry about doing it all at once. It is best to prune your tree every two or three years, and then only after it has reached a height of about one meter. It is also recommended to prune the tree after it has finished flowering, which is usually in December. For pre-flowering pruning, cut off branches that are perpendicular to the main structural limbs.
During the first year of the mango tree’s life, pruning is essential for initial shaping. Cut back the main shoot to approximately 0.6 to 0.7 meters from the base of the “ring of buds,” which is the concentrated spiral of leaves on the main stem. Leave three or four horizontal branches as your scaffolding. This will help you manage the size of the tree. You don’t want it to grow over five meters, as this is difficult to harvest.
Prune away all dead or diseased branches to the live wood. Also, remove dead branches from the trees to prevent the tree from dying back. When pruning a mango tree, make sure to wait until the tree is 12 to 15 feet tall and six feet wide. This will prevent further damage to the tree. Secondly, remove any diseased branches with lopping shears. This will prevent the spread of infection.
Moreover, if the tree is old and has not been pruned in a while, it may need rejuvenation pruning, which is simply a very strong cutting back. If the tree has been neglected for a long time, you should consider removing the old branches and cutting them in half.
Common Mango Pests & Diseases
Mango hopper is one of the most common pests that attack a mango tree. They are small, greenish to brown in color and about 1/8 inch long. They are capable of laying hundreds of eggs at a time on leaves, fruits, twigs and branches of a mango tree. The grubs that hatch from these eggs feed on the young leaves, flowers and tender shoots causing severe damage to the plant.
A mango weevil is another common pest. It lives in hiding under a mango tree’s bark and can survive without food for months. However, once it becomes active during fruiting season, the damage to the tree is done. Adult females lay eggs in the midribs of newly-grown leaves, and nymphs emerge from the adjacent buds and feed on the cell sap. The young grow into hard, green galls and discolor the pulp surrounding the affected portion of the fruit.
The mealy bugs cause significant damage to the plant by sucking out sap from their roots and stems resulting in wilting or yellowing of leaves. They also feed on sap from new shoots and fruit buds causing them to become stunted in growth.
Powdery mildew is caused by fungal spores that affect both young and mature leaves causing them to turn yellow or brown with white powdery spots on them which can lead to serious infestation if not treated immediately.
Anthracnose is caused by several different species of fungi that attack mango trees during dry weather conditions when there is more moisture present on the leaves because they have been producing new growth after leaf drop off during winter months.
Verticillium wilt is a fungus that attacks a mango tree’s vascular system and roots. It prevents the fruit from taking in water and causes browning of the vascular tissues. This pest is particularly harmful to young trees and can eventually kill them. Parasitic algal spot is less common, but can cause bark cankers and thickening of the stem.
What Is The Lifespan Of Mango Tree?
The life expectancy of a mango tree depends on where it is planted, the variety, the climate and soil conditions, and whether or not it’s grafted. In dry areas, grafted trees usually produce fruit in three to five years, while seedling trees take at least five years to come into bearing. Mango trees can remain in production for 50 years.
How Long Does It Take To Get Fruit From A Mango Tree?
It’s true that you can expect your first harvest in the next three to six years, but it’s also true that you can get your first mango harvest much sooner. Mango trees produce fruit that is ready for harvest 100 to 150 days after flowering. Most fruit is ready to pick in June and July, but specific harvest times vary by variety, so check with your local nursery for more information.
Grafted trees bear fruit within three to four years, while trees grown from seed average five to eight years before they produce fruit. Once established, mango trees require frequent watering during the growing season and less water when dormant.
How Do I Keep My Mango Plant Healthy?
The best way to keep your mango plant healthy is to make sure it has enough water, sunlight, and food.
First, the best way to keep your mango plant healthy is simply to keep it well-watered. If you see that the soil around the roots is drying out, give it a good drink of water, but be careful not to overdo it. The soil should never be completely saturated with water; if you’re watering your plant more than once a week and still seeing signs of dryness, consider giving it more drainage by putting some gravel or rocks on top of the soil. If you don’t have any drainage holes in your pot and are worried about overwatering, use a container with holes drilled into the bottom.
Second, make sure that your plant gets lots of sunlight. A mango tree should get at least six hours of direct sunlight every day to stay healthy and produce fruit. If you live somewhere with cold winters (like many parts of the United States), you can put your mango tree in a place where it will receive at least four hours of sunlight every day in wintertime. This could be close to a window or outside if you have a greenhouse or sunroom where you can bring it during colder months.
Finally, make sure that your plant has plenty of food. You can feed mango trees with any commercial fertilizer mixed with water once per month during summer months and once every two months during winter months.
How Do You Make A Mango Tree Grow Faster?
The best way to make a mango tree grow faster is to plant it in a warm, sunny place. Since mango trees are native to tropical climates, they need warm weather to grow well. You should also give your tree plenty of water and fertilizer to ensure that it gets off on the right foot.
You can also prune your tree; this will help keep it nice and neat and will allow more light to reach its leaves and fruit. Be sure not to prune too much though, if you take away too many branches, the tree won’t be able to produce enough fruit.
If you want your mango tree to grow faster than normal, you may want to consider planting multiple trees together (this is called “training”). This will help them support each other as they grow up into their mature state.
Mangoes are delicious tropical fruits that are widely cultivated and enjoyed around the world. Many people grow mango trees so they can enjoy the fruit right off the tree, or pickle and preserve it. If you want to try your hand at growing mangoes, you should start by planting a tree in well-draining soil and caring for it until it is established.
3 thoughts on “How To Plant Mango Trees On The Ground & Management”
Very informative article as I was about to grow 3 trees this coming monsoon.
Informative and useful articy
yes very informative, help us to understnd how to take care of mango tree before and after.