Levamisole is an antiparasitic active ingredient used in veterinary and human medicine. In dogs, cats and livestock it is used against internal parasites (roundworms). It is not used against agricultural and household pests. It belongs to the chemical class of the imidazothiazoles. Anthelmintics dewormers are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Agricultture. Only two dewormers (Rumatel® and Panacur/Safeguard®) are approved (will have animal species, disease, dose and drug withdrawal period for that species on the label) for use in goats and may be purchased over the counter for this purpose.
Levamisole in goats has been known to produce adverse reactions such as muscle tremors and hyperesthesia with irritability even at recommended doses; subsequently the subcutaneous administration inducing a lower blood peak of the drug is often preferred in goats. Based on the adverse reactions in goats, levamisole is therefore often administered with caution using the lower dose range which may at times result in suboptimal dosing when given through the subcutaneous route, resulting in the gradual development of resistance. The 100% efficacy recorded forV. amygdalinais also corroborated by an earlier report by. The result also authenticates the reports of . The implication of this is that the plant could be a good alternative to the commonly used synthetic anthelmintics. The plant is also readily available and it is found as a shrub in most rural backyard gardens in developing countries to which Nigeria belongs
Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract ofVernonia amygdalinaand group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count
Features of Levamisole For Goats
Levamisole is an anthelmintic (wormer) compound belonging to the chemical class of the imidazothiazoles. Levamisole is the generic low-price anthelminticpar excellencefor livestock. There are virtually thousands of brands. Tetramisole is a 50/50 mixture (i.e. a racemic mixture) of two isomers (D and L), whereby the D-isomer has no anthelmintic activity. Levamisole is the pure L isomer. Levamisole is overwhelmingly preferred: there are only very few products with tetramisole.It is mostly used in the form of the chlorhydrate salt, sometimes as a phosphate. Since it is quite soluble in water, it can be formulated for many delivery forms: drenches, injectables, feed additives, tablets, pills, etc. This is also one of the reasons for its popularity, since other cheap anthelmintics are not that versatile (e.g. benzimidazoles). It is one of the few anthelmintics that can also be delivered as a pour-ons to livestock, although this usage is nowadays quite scarce.
Toxic Symptoms caused by Levamisole Poisoning:
- Restlessness, hyperactivity
- hypersalivation (drooling),
- abdominal pain, colic,
- diarrhea, hiccups
- bradycardia (low heart rate), collapse.
- dyspnea (difficult breathing), tachypnea (rapid breathing).
- Nervous symptoms: miosis (contraction of the pupil), spasms, cramps, trembling,
- In extreme cases death can follow within 1 hour after administration due to respiratory failure.
|Approval1||Dose (mL/25 lb)||Withdrawal Time (days)|
|Oral (drench) dewormers|
|Extra label||2.0 mL||9||7||Approved||0.75 mL||7|
for Goats (Fenbendazole)
|1.1 mL||16||4||Extra label||0.6 mL||6|
|Ivomec Drench for Sheep|
|Extra label||6.0 mL||14||9||Approved||2.9 mL||11|
|Prohibit Soluble Drench|
for Cattle & Sheep (Levamisole)
|Extra label||2.7 mL||4||3||Approved||2.0 mL||3|
|Cydectin Oral Sheep Drench Wormer (Moxidectin)||Extra label||4.5 mL||17||8||Approved||2.3 mL||14|
|Rumatel (Morantel tartrate)3||Approved||45 gm/100 lb BW||30||0||Not Approved||Not Approved||Not Approved|
Prices of Levamisole For Goats
$12.99 – $156.99