The small ruminant practitioner has a small arsenal of approved drugs in the United States, so the practitioner must be familiar with the laws and regulations related to extra label use. Drugs can be used extra label in food animals only under specific circumstances and can be used only for therapeutic purposes. Drugs that are illegal in small ruminants include chloramphenicol; clenbuterol; diethylstilbestrol; dimetridazole, ipranidazole, and other nitroimidazoles such as metronidazole; dipyrone; fluoroquinolones; glycopeptides; nitrofurans; furazolidone; and extra label use of medication in feed. It is also illegal to use any drug that results in residues above established tolerances or safe levels.
Metronidazole is an antibiotic that is used commonly to treat protozoal infections and anaerobic bacterial infections. It also has anti-inflammatory effects in the bowel. Metronidazole is bactericidal; it kills bacterial microorganisms by disrupting their DNA. It is absorbed rapidly from the GI tract, metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine and the feces. Because metronidazole only has activity against anaerobic bacteria, it is used commonly with other antibiotics when it is used to treat mixed-bacterial infections. It is compatible with many other antibiotics including penicillin antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and some cephalosporins.
A survey among small ruminant veterinary practitioners and producers of the United States was conducted to determine the most important health problems of sheep and goats and the need for drugs to treat these diseases. Gastrointestinal nematodes and pneumonia were the most important health concerns. Ceftiofur, long acting tetracyclines, penicillins, tilmicosin and enrofloxacin were the antibiotics most needed. The approval of ivermectin and albendazole for goats, and fenbendazole for sheep were among the most common requests for anthelmintics
Features of Metronidazole For Goats
- Pharmacokinefic studies of metronidazole in goats after single dose oral and i. v. administration at 50mg and 20 mg/kg respectively were carried out.
2. The mean blood level time profile obtained after oral administration showed maximum concentration C (max) at 2 b and the therapeutic concentration C (ther) in blood above 0.70 (g/ml persisted upto 6 h.
3. Metronidazole administered i. v. produced shorter duration of C (ther) with levels ranging from 2.29( 1.4 to 37.36( 1.5 Kg/ml till 2 h ; the drug attained C (maxI in milk at 1 b and Cm (ther) interestingly was maintained upto 12 h following i. v. administration.
4. The semilogrithmic plot of blood level time profiIe of metronidazoie administered i. v. showed biphasic decline which was suggestive of ‘two compartment open model kinetics.
5. The elimination half life (t 0.5 ()and the apparent volume of distribution (V.d) were found to be 56(2.45 min and 0.93(0.96 L/kg respectively and the ratio of the microscopic rate constants (K12+K21)/K2 was also wider.
6. The extent of plasma protein bound drug ranged between 25.50 to 36.27 %
Uses.benefits of Metronidazole For Goats
Metrodinazole is effective in the treatment of:
inflammatory bowel disease;
To treat Giardia
For anaerobic infectious meningitis
Dosing for purulent cholangitis
In the treatment of plasmacytic/lymphocytic enteritis in dogs
In treatment of plasmacytic/lymphocytic colitis in dogs
In amebiasis, balantidiosis in dogs
Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Oral and dental infections
Other bacterial infections that cause diarrhea or sepsis
Giardia is a microscopic parasite that lives in a dog’s intestines.
It is transmitted with contaminated water, soil or food Is a strong antimicrobial, mainly used as an antidiarrheal to treat inflammation of the colon
- Metronidazole is reported to elevate prothrombin time in animals on warfarin or other coumarin anticoagulants.
- Phenobarbital and phenytoin may increase the metabolism of metronidazole.
Prices of Metronidazole For Goats
$48,90 – $89,90