Grape vines are very sensitive plants, and they require a lot of attention and care. Proper nutrition is of the utmost importance in the growth and development of grape vines. The use of fertilizer for grape vines is essential to their growth, health, and production. The type and quantity of fertilizer used are based on the soil’s fertility, the vineyard’s location, and the specific needs of each vineyard. In order to achieve maximum results, you will need to use a high-quality fertilizer for your grape vines. Choosing the right fertilizer can be difficult, but it’s important to know what nutrients your vine needs and how much.
The most important thing when choosing a fertilizer is to be sure it’s specifically made for grapevines. This means that it has the right ratio of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK). For example: if you have a low-yield variety like Pinot Noir that needs more nitrogen than other varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon, then you’ll need to make sure your fertilizer has high levels of nitrogen so as not to burn out your vineyard’s roots with too much phosphorus or potassium.
Pre-planting Fertilization of Grapevines
Grapes (Vitis vinifera) planted in most soil types require some fertilizer to grow their best. Excessive soil nutrients, however, cause vines to grow rapidly while fruit production and quality decrease. Different types of nutrients should be applied to grapes throughout the growing season.
If a soil test reveals rich soil, you might want to err on the lighter side when it comes to fertilizer applications. Grapevines will generally require more nutrients as they mature. If the results of your test show the soil pH is fine but magnesium is lacking, add 1 pound (0.5 kg.) of Epsom salts for every 100 square feet (9.3 square meters).
Should you find your soil is lacking in phosphorus, apply triple phosphate (0-45-0) in the amount of ½ pound (0.22 kg.), superphosphate (0-20-0) at the rate of ¼ pound (0.11 kg.), or bone meal (1-11-1) in the amount of 2 ¼ pounds (1 kg.) per 100 square feet (9.3 square meters). Lastly, if the soil is low in potassium, add ¾ pound (0.34 kg.) of potassium sulfate or 10 pounds (4.5 kg.) of greensand.
Apply organic fertilizers rich in nitrogen two weeks after planting. Reapply annually in the early spring right before growth starts. Do not apply nitrogen later in the season as it will delay ripening, inhibit coloring, and create a tender, late-season growth that will be damaged in the winter. Four to six inches of mulch may be applied to help control weeds and conserve soil moisture. For a more productive harvest, plant grapes in raised beds or hills.
Grapevines Nitrogen Requirement and Application
Grapevines require nitrogen when they grow rapidly during the spring. If you want to fertilize grapes using manure, the University of California recommends applying it in January or February. Apply 5 to 10 pounds of poultry or rabbit manure or 5 to 20 pounds of steer or cow manure per vine.
Other nitrogen fertilizers, such as urea, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate, should be applied after bloom or when the grapes reach 1/4-inch in diameter. You can apply 1/2-pound of ammonium sulfate, 3/8-pound of ammonium nitrate, or 1/4-pound of urea per vine.
Grapevines Zinc Requirement and Application
Zinc helps grapevines with pollination, hormone production, and other essential plant functions. Signs of zinc deficiency include stunted shoots and leaves, as well as reduced fruit set. The best time to apply zinc is during spring about a week before they bloom or when the vines are in full bloom.
A zinc spray with a concentration of 0.1 pounds per gallon should be applied to the foliage of each vine. Alternatively, pruning cuts can be dipped into a zinc solution immediately after pruning vines during early winter.
Grapevines Potassium Requirement and Application
If grapevines show signs of a potassium deficiency, such as decreased shoot growth, chlorosis (yellowing), and burning during summer. Potassium fertilizer should be applied during the spring or early summer when the vines are beginning to produce fruit.
You may also want to apply potassium if soil tests reveal a deficiency. Experts at the University of California recommend applying 3 pounds of potassium sulfate per vine for a mild deficiency. For a severe potassium deficiency, up to 6 pounds per vine should be applied.
Best Fertilizer For Grape Vines
If you’ve been thinking of growing your own grapes, one of the best ways to keep them healthy and happy is with a good fertilizer. There are many types of fertilizer that you can purchase, here are some best fertilizers for grape vines:
Price : $12.50 ($0.36 / Ounce)
- Organic granular fertilizer; Fast acting fertilizer for fruit, citrus and vines for a more abundant harvest
- Contains MYKOS mycorrhizae; A natural and organic species of mycorrhizae that works fast and helps generate a stronger root system by forming a symbiotic relationship with plants
- MYKOS delivers more nutrients and more water to produce more abundant, better tasting and more nutritional crops
- CDFA and OMRI listed for organic gardening by USDA; Certified organic means no synthetic chemicals
Price : $7.35 ($0.46 / Fl Oz)
- Hi Tech Grape Fertilizer
- Single Season Application
- Designed Specifically For Grape Culture
- Organic Controlled Release
Price : $11.95 ($1.49 / Fl Oz)
- For Organic Use – OMRI Listed (Organic Materials Review Institute)
- Makes up to 8 gallons depending on application
- No harmful chemicals – Safe for use around children and pets
- Hydrolyzed Fish & Kelp Formula for organic use
- N-P-K = 2.0 – 5.0 – 0.2
Price : $20.02 ($0.25 / Fl Oz)
- A Natural fertilizer blended especially for acid lovers such as rhododendrons, azaleas, camellias, hydrangeas, evergreens, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, potatoes and other plants that need a low pH
- To encourage lush flowers and fruit, apply Acid Mix in early spring for vegetative growth and again when blooms appear.
- Fall Applications can help promote root growth and boost resistance to extreme winter temperatures
- 5 pound box
- 4-3-6 formula
Nelson Citrus Fruit and Avocado Tree Plant Food In Ground Container Patio Grown Granular Fertilizer NutriStar 12-10-10 (4 lb)
Price : $29.97 ($0.47 / Ounce)
- PLANT TREE FOOD: Plant Food For Citrus Fruits and Avocado Trees featuring Nitrogen (12%), Phosphate (10%), Soluble Potash (10%). Balanced nutrient ratio helps trees to grow properly for fruit production. Includes added calcium to increase size and strength of trunk and limbs. High potassium helps trees to survive colder weather.
- CITRUS AVOCADO FRUIT TREE FERTILIZER: Excellent source of nutrients and minerals for in ground and container grown trees including but not limited to: Orange, Lemon, Avocado, Lime, Kumquat, Grapefruit, Persimmon, Kiwi, Papaya, Fig, Peach, Plum, Pear, Apple, Pecans and Grapes (Grape Vines).
- PATIO INDOOR OUTDOOR PLANT FERTILIZER: Large, tasty fruit is everyone’s dream. NutriStar provides the right ingredients in the right amounts to help you enjoy the fruits of your labor.
- IMMEDIATE RESULTS: NutriStar works with the soil and the soil biology to provide your plants with the best nutrition at the right time and in the right amount. Your plant gets an immediate boost upon application, coupled with lasting benefits that continue to feed.
- SUPERIOR QUALITY: The leading landscapers’ choice for plants for over 30 years. Nelson Plant Food builds products that are horticulturally correct for each type of plant. Extensive research is done to make sure that plants are fed correctly with each NutriStar or ColorStar product.
When to Feed Grapevines
Grape vines need to be fed throughout the growing season. The most important time to feed is when the vine is actively growing—between bud break and leaf fall. If you are using a granular fertilizer, spread it around the drip line of each vine in early spring (around the first week of April). If you are using a liquid fertilizer, apply it with a hose-end sprayer every two weeks from bud break until leaf fall.
How Much Fertilizer Should I Use For Grapes?
Apply no more than ¼ pound (0.11 kg.) of 10-10-10 fertilizer in a circle around the plant, 4 feet (1.2 m.) away from each vine. In successive years, apply 1 pound (0.45 kg.) about 8 feet (2.4 m.) from the base of the plants appear to lack vigor.
Apply plant food for grapes just when the buds begin to emerge in the spring. Fertilizing too late in the season can cause overly extensive growth, which may leave the plants vulnerable to winter injury.
Tips on Planting, Growing & Harvesting Grapes
Planting and management of grapes have some requirements that need to be satisfied. Below are tips to assist you to plant grapes successfully.
- Varieties best suited to your region should be selected.
- Start from cuttings or nursery stock
- Plant in full sun in compost-rich soil
- Locate where breezes can dry off moisture
- The plant must be fertilized early in the season and be watered regularly
- The plant must be pruned carefully to minimize side shoots
- A trellis or other support should be provided.
Site Preparation for Grapes
All types of grapes require a warm planting site with full sun and moderate water. An area that has adequate sun, soil with a pH of 5 – 6.5, and well-drained but not soaked with enough nutrients to grow just well must be chosen.
Too much fertilizing can make them grow fast but they will not bear grapes that well. So, make sure you do not fertilize your grapevines more than necessary. The soil at the planting site should be loose, rich, and deep.
The roots of grapevines grow deep into the earth. Amend to a depth of 24 to 36 inches with good organic compost or well-rotted animal manure to improve existing soil. Pruning during the dormant season will control growth and produce abundant fruit.
Growing grapes in your backyard are not as difficult as some assume it to be. One of the best things about growing grapes is their adaptability to varied climates and soil. Another important thing to know when growing grapes is knowing when and how to fertilize the soil for enhanced growth. The best fertilizer for grapevines should be rich in macro and microelements. Once established, a well-tended plant can be productive for 40 years or more.